Tigon: Porritt, Bennett and the ‘Zuma precept’

In dismissing functions from Tigon-accused Gary Porritt and Sue Bennett for his recusal, Decide Brian Spilg raised the potential for imposing sanctions towards litigants and authorized groups who more and more abuse such functions and use them as a authorized technique.

This comes towards the background of plans by former president Jacob Zuma to deliver an utility for the recusal of Deputy Decide President Raymond Zondo as chair of the fee of inquiry into state seize later this month. Zondo has issued summons to compel Zuma to look.

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Zuma is accusing Zondo of bias towards him and failure to reveal household ties between the 2. His legal professional Eric Mabuza advised EWN that Zuma needs the recusal utility to be handled earlier than seems earlier than the fee.

Zondo has since clarified that he had a toddler with a girl within the 1990s whose sister married Zuma a few years later. It has no bearing on his work on the fee and Zuma has by no means earlier than raised an objection on this foundation when Zondo has presided over his instances, the deputy chief justice said.

‘Smoke display screen’

Constitutional legislation skilled Professor Pierre de Vos has expressed the opinion that Zuma’s plans for a recusal utility is a smoke display screen to keep away from showing on the fee later this month and to discredit the fee in anticipation of adversarial findings towards him.

Porritt and Bennett are additionally infamous for his or her delaying ways.

Porritt is former CEO of JSE-listed monetary companies group Tigon and Bennett a former director. The pair had been first arrested in 2002 and 2003 respectively and are dealing with greater than three 000 fees regarding the collapse of Tigon, together with fraud and transgression of the Revenue Tax Act.

Their trial solely began in 2016 after they introduced a number of appeals and functions. A number of courts, together with the Supreme Court docket of Enchantment, have discovered that the pair intentionally delayed proceedings.

In March 2018 Decide Ramarumo Monama actually discovered that Porritt acts identical to Zuma by delaying the trial by means of functions and appeals “even when there may be manifestly no prospect (of success)”. This, he known as the “Zuma precept”.

Porritt has been in jail for the previous couple of years after he did not pitch for a court docket look.

In his newest ruling Spilg mentioned the check for deciding whether or not a choose ought to recuse himself, is whether or not an affordable, goal and knowledgeable particular person would, on the right details, have an affordable apprehension that the choose has not or won’t have an neutral thoughts that’s open to persuasion by the proof and submissions of counsel.


It’s presumed that judges can be neutral. That doesn’t imply absolute neutrality and judges needn’t be silent umpires. They need to to handle the trial successfully and effectively to finality and make sure that private and non-private sources are usually not wasted, Spilg said.

He discovered that Porritt and Bennett had indicated way back to 2016 that they deliberate to ask for his recusal, however solely introduced the functions now on the court docket’s insistence. Their conduct doesn’t present grave concern about his impartiality and needs to be dismissed, he mentioned.

It’s within the curiosity of justice that recusal functions needs to be introduced speedily, and litigants can’t let the trial run its course till it fits them to deliver the applying, Spilg mentioned.

The one new issues they raised had been Bennett’s concern about an alleged battle of curiosity after Spilg’s identify appeared on a questionable listing of people that allegedly defaulted on their taxes in 2002, and the truth that he learn the papers Porritt just lately filed in a contemporary bail utility.

The South African Income Service (Sars) is the principle complainant within the matter and is funding the prosecution.

Bennett’s authorized consultant conceded in court docket that the data on the alleged Sars listing was incorrect. This was after Spilg confirmed his tax evaluation for that 12 months to the accused and their authorized groups and several other Sars officers confirmed that his tax affairs had been so as.

Since her apprehension was primarily based on incorrect details, they didn’t carry any weight, he discovered.

Porritt argued that Spilg’s perception in his bail utility may compromise his impartiality.

Spilg nevertheless mentioned he’s totally able to disabusing his thoughts. Porritt was delaying his filings within the recusal utility, saying he was unable to seek the advice of his authorized workforce throughout the Covid-19 lockdown. When he realised that Porritt had actually been getting ready a considerable bail utility, he needed to see it to find out the extent of it and whether or not Porritt had a sound excuse.


Spilg mentioned an increasing number of recusal functions are introduced as a tactical system or as a result of the litigant doesn’t like the result of an interim order made throughout the course of the trial. “The seeming alacrity with which authorized practitioners deliver or threaten to deliver recusal functions is trigger for concern.”

He mentioned the recusal of a presiding officer “mustn’t change into commonplace tools in a litigant’s arsenal however needs to be exercised for its true supposed goal, which is to safe a good trial within the pursuits of justice with a purpose to preserve each the integrity of the courts and the place they ought to carry within the minds of the individuals who they serve”.

He mentioned that whereas the appropriate of a litigant to lift the impropriety of a choose’s conduct – and, with out worry, search their recusal – is obvious, it could be needed to think about sanctions in instances the place the appropriate to request a recusal has been abused for an ulterior objective.